QURAN and SCIENCE

QURAN and SCIENCE

A b s t r a c t s 

Physics is a fundamental science in the development of science and 
technology in the modern world. Physics studies the various forms of 
structure and character of natural objects. Thus, mastery of physics is one of 
the activities desired by Allah Swt. This article is made so that at least the 
Muslim community can realize the urgency of physics. In this study, we use 
the type/approach of research in the form of Library Research. The data that 
we obtain and process is data that comes from manuscripts or texts from 
similar previous studies. From this research, we conclude that the Qur'an is 
a way of life for all mankind. The Qur'an is like a miniature of the universe 
that contains all disciplines of science and is a means of solving all problems 
throughout human life. Besides that, physics has a very large and significant 
function and role in the existence of mankind. Also, the role of this physical 
science can ease the difficulties experienced by lightening the work of 
humans is not difficult.

 A r t i c l e    I n f o

Article History:
Received 17 Juni 2021
Revised 21 Agustus 2021
Accepted 12 Oktober 2021
Available online 15 November 2021
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Keyword:
Muslim Community;
Physics;
Science;
Technology

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Introduction

Physics is a fundamental science in the development of science and technology in the 
modern world. Physics studies about various forms of structure and character of natural objects. 
Thus, mastery of physics is one of the activities desired by Allah Swt (Bakuwa, 2013). In studying 
physics, the first thing to emphasize is measurement so that the basic quantities used in other 
scientific disciplines are obtained. In addition, in physics, simple phenomena such as the 
movement of matter are studied which must be discussed in other disciplines. Therefore, it 
cannot be denied that physics is the basic foundation in other modern scientific disciplines.
Starting from the enlightenment period in the 17th century, western society began to 
realize the importance of scientific discussions and thoughts. This is evidenced by the 
development of technology in every aspect of human life and is the axis of world technological 
development. The development of a very massive science was started by Sir Isaac Newton who put forward the theory of motion and gravity. The theory can accurately predict the motion of 
simple matter to very large materials such as planets, meteors, and stars. Several decades later, 
on the other hand, James Watt succeeded in developing a steam engine that was ready and could 
be used. From the steam engine, industrial activities and transportation developed rapidly so 
that the industrial revolution began in Europe and its colonies. In physics, this era is known as 
the era of classical physics. Several centuries later, precisely in the 20th century, physics 
underwent a revolution from the era of classical physics to the era of modern physics. The study 
of modern physics cannot be explained by classical physics concepts, so in the early 20th century 
a German physicist named Albert Einstein published the theory of relativity which 
revolutionized the world of science. In this era, science and technology are the main reasons for 
changes in every aspect of human life (Parhan & Kurniawan, 2020).
It is common knowledge that technological developments revolutionize industrial 
activities and industrial activities change the social conditions of society. The foundation of 
industrial activity is knowledge and technology. As an example in the food industry, initially 
almost all industrial processes were carried out manually by humans with the help of simple 
tools. With the increase in knowledge and technology in the food industry, several activities 
such as milling and packaging can be carried out by machines so that the work becomes more 
effective and efficient. On the other hand, knowledge and technology are also developing in the 
military industry so that the creation of weapons that have higher destructive power and 
destructive power. Therefore, it is undeniable that industrial activities can change the social 
conditions of society for the better or for the worse. Developing industrial activities can open 
up new job opportunities for the community but can create gaps for the less educated people.
In discussing the development of science and technology, the discussion seems to focus 
on Europe and America, but in fact the Islamic world has been the axis in the development of 
science and technology. At the time of the golden age of Islam around the 8th century to the 
14th century, a scientist named Abu Ali al-Hasan bin al-Hasan bin al-Haitsam or Ibn al-Haitsam 
contributed greatly to the field of modern optics. In addition, he is known as the “Father of the 
modern scientific method” because of his role in processing and obtaining data. Scientists from 
the west follow the development of science knowledge and technology that developed in the 
Middle East region and continued it in the following centuries. until tit is undeniable that by 
being axis in the development of science and technology, can bring Islam to its golden age.
So this article is made so that at least the Muslim community can realize the urgency of 
physics. In this article will be given some of the relationship of physics with the Koran as the 
main way of life of a Muslim. This is because we know that danger is the backbone of 
technological development, physics can reach all aspects of human life. Technological progress 
is currently growing rapidly and is used as a starting point measure the progress of a nation. 
Muslims must be able to follow every existing developments so as not to become a people who 
are left behind, especially related to his duties as caliph on earth (Bakuwa, 2013). However, even 
now technological developments are not in the Muslim community so that the Muslim 
community is less able to compete in this aspect. One of the reasons is negative stereotypes in 
people's minds towards physics that can hinder the development of physics in today's Muslim 
society.

Method

In this study, we use a research type/approach in the form of a literature study (Library 
Research). Literature study is a series of activities related to the method of collecting library data, 
reading and taking notes and processing research materials. The data we obtain and process is 
data that comes from manuscripts or texts from similar previous studies.

Results and Discussion

Physics as a branch of science is based on the thought of the Qur'an which is the basis 
of science. Not only the truth from a scientific point of view, but the understanding of physics 
should be understood in detail so that the truth can be studied in a real and universal way. This 
shows that there is a relationship between science and Islam that can be run simultaneously 
(Wati et al., 2021).
Physics is a very useful subject in life. Physics subject not only aims to equip students 
with knowledge but also aims to create students who glorify the greatness of God. The study of 
the theory of physics has been previously explained in the Qur'an and vice versa the truth of 
the verses of the Qur'an can be proven by the theory of physics. The link between the Koran 
and Physics can be proven through the verses of the Kauniyah. Kauniyah verse is a verse of the 
Koran that contains the greatness of the universe and all its contents (Laurenty et al., 2018).
Based on that, if students already have an attitude like happy and interested in taking the 
time towards learning physics, then will then settle down and continue his career in Physics also. 
Interested to continue career in the field of Physics can not be separated from how much large 
the individual has belief that a career in physics is one of the wishes for his future (Putra et al., 
2019).
Integration is the process of combining certain values with other concepts so that they 
become a coherent and inseparable whole or the process of assimilation to become a unified 
whole. In this context, physics material will be combined with Qur'anic verses as the highest 
source of knowledge in Islamic education so that it becomes a blend of mathematics and 
religion. Kuntowijoyo in Fathul Mufid states that the essence of the integration of science is an 
effort to unite (not just combine) God's revelation and the findings of the human mind (rational 
sciences), not to exclude God (secularism) or isolate humans (other wordly asceticism). This integration 
model is to make the Qur'an and Sunnah as a grand theory of knowledge. So that the verses of 
Kauniyyah and Qawliyyah can be used. The integration referred to here is related to efforts to 
integrate general science with Islam without having to eliminate the uniqueness between the 
two sciences, in the Qur'an, there are many verses that explain the concepts of physics (Huda 
& Mutia, 2017).

Quranic Verses about Optics and Light

If we talk about optics, of course, it can't be separated from light. Optical instruments 
always work with the role of light. We can observe together, in people who suffer from 
farsighted eye defects (hypermetropia). For nearsighted people, of course they really need the 
role of seeing aids in the form of glasses. However, not all glasses with any lens can be used, 
but especially for glasses with convex (positive) lenses. When people who are farsighted see 
objects at normal reading distances, the image of the object will fall behind the retina. To make 
the image of objects fall on the retina, the patient is assisted by using convex (positive) lenses. 
With the help of positive-lens glasses, the image of objects will fall right on the retina.
Meanwhile, nearsighted people have a far point that is much closer than the far point of 
the normal eye and the near point is shorter than the near point of the normal eye. If a myopic 
eye sees an object at infinity, the image of the object falls in front of the retina. This occurs 
because the lens of the eye cannot flatten properly as needed. Myopia sufferers really need a 
concave lens so that the image falls in front of the retina and objects can be seen clearly.
Light is energy in the form of visible electromagnetic waves with a wavelength of about 
380–750 nm. Light is an electromagnetic wave (does not require a medium) to propagate, so 
light can propagate without the need for a medium.
Optical instruments are devices that use lenses and require light. The eye is a natural 
optical instrument. Our eyes have a very limited ability to see, that is, they cannot see clearly small objects, objects that are very far away and cannot record what they see properly. Therefore, 
our eyes must be assisted with artificial optical devices such as cameras, loupe, microscopes, and 
binoculars. Utilization of the concept of physics in the field of optics is also widely used by 
humans. An example of the use of the field of optics is the use of mirrors and lenses. The 
mirrors used include rearview mirrors, makeup mirrors, OHP, flashlight reflectors, motorcycle 
reflectors, car reflectors, and light collectors on microscopes. The use of lenses includes: loupes, 
telescopes, microscopes, glasses, OHP, projectors, cameras (Sutrisno, 1979).
The working principle of the mirror is the reflection or reflection of light. Rays that 
come into the mirror will be reflected back. The formation of an image on a mirror takes 
advantage of the special rays on the mirror. Concave and convex mirrors have different special 
rays. The following is an explanation of reflection in a mirror. We can see objects caused by two 
things, first, objects can emit light or the object is a light source, and the second is that the object 
reflects light from the light source so that our eyes can catch the reflected light and we can see 
the object. In Surah An-Nur verse 35 Allah Swt says:

Meaning: "Allah (Giver) light (to) the heavens and the earth. The parable of Allah's light 
is like an impenetrable hole, in which is a large lamp. The lamp is in the glass (and) the glass is 
like a star (which shines) like pearls, which are lit with oil from a blessed tree, (ie) an olive tree 
that grows neither in the east (something) nor in the west. (him), whose oil (only) is almost 
illuminating, even though the fire does not touch it. Light upon light (in layers), Allah guides to 
His light whom He wills, and Allah sets forth parables for mankind, and Allah is Knower of all 
things. (Surat an-Nur: 35).


The verse above explains to humans that light objects can be seen because they are hit 
by light, then the light is reflected, so that we can see objects around us. What if God didn't 
create the sun? Of course the universe would be pitch black. Physically, Allah illuminates the 
earth and the sky with the sun. The sun has an average distance of 149.6 million kilometers from 
the earth. There is one implicit indication of the verse, namely sunlight can reach the earth's 
surface, one of the properties of light, where light can propagate without a medium (in outer 
space there is no air/vacuum). With a very long distance, sunlight can reach the earth's surface 
at the speed of light of 3 × 108 m/s.

Quranic Verses about Matter and Its Changes

Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space (has volume). Everything in the 
universe, including the human body, is matter. Matter exists in 3 forms: liquid, solid and gas. 
Material change is a change in the nature of a substance or material into another substance, 
whether it is a new substance or not (Abdullah, 2016). In discussing matter and its changes, it 
cannot be separated from the kinds of substances that consist of solid, liquid and gas. Regarding 
this matter, it is not forgotten that physics is a science that studies real events that are closely 
related to everyday life.
Like the following, of course we are familiar with detergents and stains on clothes, why 
can detergents remove stains on clothes? It can not be separated from the concept of matter 
and regarding the form of this substance, in discussing the form of matter there is of course a force of attraction for molecules. Due to the attraction of these mini molecules, detergents can 
lift stains on clothes.
Soaps and detergents can reduce the effect of surface tension on the water. The surface 
tension in pure water is very high, so that the dirt on the clothes is still attached to the clothes. 
If during the washing process, detergent is given pure water, the surface tension of the water in 
the small holes formed by the fibers and the clothes is reduced by the detergent, so that dirt can 
be released from the fiber holes in the clothes. So that with detergent the dirt that sticks to the 
clothes can be removed. The substances that can reduce the surface tension in the liquid are 
called surfactants.
So it can be concluded that matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. A 
material can undergo changes, namely physical changes and chemical changes. Physical changes 
are changes that do not produce new substances, while chemical changes are changes that 
produce new substances. Changes in matter involve the properties of matter, for example, 
physical changes involve the physical properties of a material, while chemical changes involve 
the chemical properties of a material (Tippler, 1998).
To make it easier to study a material in nature, it is necessary to classify it. Classification 
of matter based on state can be divided into solids, liquids, and gases. While the classification 
of matter based on its components can be divided into single substances and mixtures. In Surah 
Ar-Rum verse 48 Allah says:

Meaning: "Allah, it is He who sends the wind, then the wind moves the clouds and Allah 
spreads them in the sky as He wills, and makes them lumpy; Then you see rain coming out of 
its crevices, so when it rains on His servants as He wills, suddenly they will be happy.” (Surat 
Ar-Rum: 48). In Surah Al-An'am verse 6 Allah Swt says:

Meaning: "Have they not noticed how many generations We destroyed before them, 
even though (that generation) We had established their position on the earth, namely a firmness 
that We had not given you, and We poured down heavy rain on them and We made rivers flow 
under them, then We destroyed them for their own sins, and We created after them another 
generation." (Surat al-An'am: 6).

The verse above explains to humans about matter and its changes, namely the first stage 
that it is Allah who sends the wind. Water particles form clouds by collecting water vapor. The 
second stage, then the wind stirs up the clouds and Allah spreads them in the sky as He wills, 
and becomes lumpy. Clouds are formed from water vapor that condenses around salt crystals 
or dust particles in the air. The third stage, then you see rain coming out of the cracks, then 
when it rains it falls. The water particles surrounding the salt crystals and the dust particles 
thicken and form raindrops. So the droplets become heavier than air, leave the clouds and begin 
to fall to the ground as rain